Friday, September 28, 2007

Vote is in for Greatest Founding Father...not Alexander Hamilton

The vote is over for considering who the greatest founding father is; Thomas Jefferson and George Washington each received seven votes, Madison, Hamilton, and Samuel Adams each had one vote. Maybe Jefferson's reputation helped him, but Washington lead the vote count up until the end. Washington was an upright man, with the integrity, and character Jefferson lacked. Despite Jefferson having nothing to do with the formation or ratification of the Constitution, his popularity continues to grow.

I agree with Hercules Mulligan that Washington had the universal confidence and respect from the other framers to be first President of the early Republic; from President James Monroe's testimony, without Washington's leadership, the Constitutional Convention would have likely failed.

I have questions regarding Washington's Christianity; unlike Alexander Hamilton, whose writings tell us he believed the Christian Religion Divine, amidst his personal failures. In comparing Washington's simple genius with the brilliance of Alexander Hamilton, my allegiance is with the latter.

From his birth in the West Indies, he overcame adversity Washington, or any other framer never experienced. He also had to deal with prejudice from some framers who were born with silver spoons in their mouths, some launching assaults at his birth out of wedlock.

He was, as John Adams later claimed, "the bastard brat of a Scottish peddler." Hamilton, at the age of 13, had to prevail when his mother, who had pieced together a livelihood as a retailer, died. He prevailed again when his guardian, a distant relative named Peter Lytton, committed suicide the following year.

At 19, in the United States, Hamilton put a brigade together on his own, getting his troops and supplies himself, while being appointed a captain of the New York Artillery. Hamilton and his men fought bravely in several early battles, including the unsuccessful attempt to hold Manhattan from the British. Hamilton and his unit covered Washington's retreat across New Jersey. In the sharpest exchanges, Hamilton's artillery kept the British at bay while the bulk of the American forces crossed first the Raritan River and later the Delaware. Hamilton also took part in the successful, and famous, counterattacks at Trenton and Princeton in the winter of 1776–77.

Hamilton was not only a military genius, he was an administrative, legal, economic, and political genius as well. Washington recognized his talent, giving ever-increasing responsibility to the young officer, now a lieutenant colonel. During the next few years of fighting, when desertion was all too common, Hamilton stayed loyally by his commander's side. He was there for the frozen winters at Valley Forge and Morristown; the military disasters like the abandonment of New York City in 1776 and the subsequent retreat across New Jersey; the real treacheries of Benedict Arnold, and the perceived treacheries of an impotent Continental Congress; and the failed opportunities like Monmouth, when he was at Washington's side when the Virginia gentleman lambasted General Charles Lee in mid-battle for gross misconduct. And Hamilton was with Washington during the good times, the infrequent victories, and the secret march to trap Cornwallis at Yorktown.
http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/910687.html

Hamilton was also the first man over the wall at Yorktown, defeating the British, showing his undaunted bravery. His genius started during the Revolutionary War, when he first thought of the National Bank. Central to Hamilton's early plans were several key provisions of what would later be the hallmarks of his financial program: foreign loans, partial government ownership of a national bank, and use of that bank to provide the national government with short-term loans.

Hamilton's thought was often far in advance of that of most of his contemporaries. This is not to say that he could see the future but rather that he took positions that remained unpopular or misunderstood until well into the nineteenth century. Two episodes in 1784 demonstrate his prescience. First, Hamilton established a private commercial bank. The innovation came not so much from the bank itself, which closely followed the procedures established by its predecessor, the Bank of North America. Rather, the innovation came from the way in which the bank, the very same Bank of New York that still graces Wall Street, found legal life. The New York legislature was against his idea, so he by-passed them and started it himself; the most essential advantages of his idea: joint-stock form, negotiable shares, status as a legal entity, and limited liability. So the Bank of New York formed and began business anyway, under private "articles of association" instead of a special legislative act. Hamilton used the same technique again with the Merchants' Bank in the early nineteenth century.

Hamilton presented several monumental state papers that, when combined with the entrepreneurial talents and self-interested desires of thousands of Americans, forged a national financial system: The Report on Public Credit (January 9, 1790), The Report on the Bank (December 13, 1790), The Establishment of a Mint (January 28, 1791), and The Report on Manufactures (December 5, 1791). Taken together, Hamilton's reports were nothing short of a strategic outline for the establishment of a thriving economy rooted solidly in the bedrock of sound fiscal management, a stable monetary system, extensive short-term commercial credit, and long-term development capital. On the grandest scale, the secretary's policies helped to solidify the new government by creating incentives for wealthy individuals to invest in it, directly through ownership of its bonds and indirectly through ownership of shares in the Bank of the United States. He surmised, correctly as it turned out, that the financial system would be "the powerful cement of our Union."

His ideas on the National Bank Jefferson and Madison despised, making Virginia pay the debts of other states, as well as a threat to Republican Government. Hamilton had no loyalty to any state, but to the Constitution. Hamilton saw paying the debt a blessing rather than a burden, in addition to aligning the interests of the wealthy with those of the government, his funding plan would increase the nation's credit overseas, making it cheaper and easier for both the government and private enterprises to obtain foreign financing. Finally, funding would create a form of liquid capital that would help the economy to allocate resources more efficiently.

Madison's solution on paying the debt was insufficient, and discriminatory; Madison wanted to group the original debt holders at the expense of current debt holders; Hamilton eventually crushed the discrimination argument with his usual barrage of logic and first principles. The debt instruments were simply a species of property, the value of which fluctuated with the government's fortunes and interest rates. They were, moreover, fully negotiable instruments. In other words, exchanging them was perfectly legal. The original holders had not been coerced into selling and had received a valuable consideration for the ownership of the obligations. Only the current owners of the bonds, Hamilton concluded, could be compensated. For those who could not follow his reasoning, Hamilton offered the Continental Congressional resolution of April 26, 1783, authored ironically enough by Madison, that solemnly pledged that there would be no discrimination against those who obtained government debt in the secondary market.

Thinking through the matter of the Bank being owned and operated by the government, or being privitized, in Hamilton's view, independent managers would prevent abuse by the government and provide a necessary check against its possible perfidy, much like judicial review did for courts and legislatures. The private status of the Bank would ensure that the government could never use it as a tool of oppression. As Hamilton noted, governments were never "blessed with a constant succession of upright and wise Administrators." But the Bank, as a private institution, would have a "magnetic sense" of its "own interest ... the prosperity of the institution" and thereby prevent the government from succumbing to "the temptations of momentary exigencies."
http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/910687.html

Today's corruption, and greed of man is a totally different animal compared to 18th century America. It seems the longer the nation exists, the more wicked it becomes, throwing off the Biblical fundamentals the Founding Fathers grew up with. Of Hamilton,
Chancellor James Kent called him, a lawyer that had no superior. (emphasis added)

Politically, if he would have been more sympathetic, and understanding, the Federalists would not have lost the Presidency of 1800. If he could have united the Federalists, rather than splitting them up, Adams would have beaten Jefferson in 1800; even with Hamilton's death, the Federalists would still have been the most powerful party. But Hamilton had enemies, and helped divide the party.

In the end, Hamilton fell mortally wounded on the dueling grounds at Weehawken, the financial system was thriving. Joint-stock banks were rapidly multiplying, as were other types of joint-stock companies, not all of which, thanks to Hamilton's insight, needed formal incorporation to begin operations. The credit of the U.S. was among the best in the world; U.S. bonds and stock in the Bank of the United States regularly traded in London as well as in the active securities markets of Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Charleston. The nation's credit was so good that it easily borrowed to purchase Louisiana and to fight wars. The first Bank helped to keep the macroeconomy on an even keel by checking the note issue of state banks. The entire nation had a single unit of account, the U.S. dollar, that was firmly defined in terms of gold and silver. Fire and marine insurance was almost fully formed; life insurance lay just over the horizon, as did trust companies, savings banks, and building-and-loans. Great leaps in manufacturing—ultimately funded by banks and capital markets—began just a few years after Hamilton's death. Most importantly, economic growth, increases in real per capita output, was picking up steam, soon literally as well as figuratively.
http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Misc/Chicago/910687.html

Alexander Hamilton was the creator of the U.S. financial system, the engine of America's remarkable nineteenth-century economic and political transformations. Wall Street, and our modern banking system, was designed by him. His legacy will always be with us. I consider him one of the great geniuses the United States has produced.

"I consider Napoleon, Fox, and Hamilton the three greatest men of our epoch, and if I were forced to decide between the three, I would give without hesitation the first place to Hamilton. He divined Europe." --Charles Maurice de Talleyrand

59 comments:

Hercules Mulligan said...

Alexander Hamilton was indeed a great Founder.

Perhaps you heard about the new Institute that was just recently established from the comments on your last post. I wrote briefly on the AHI here.

If you look around there website, it is pretty impressive to see how they recognize the role of Christianity in politics and in the shaping of western civilization.

Hercules Mulligan said...

THE CHRISTIAN CONSTITUTIONAL SOCIETY IS HERE!

http://www.christianconstitutionalsociety.org/

Jonathan said...

I regularly go to Robbie George's seminars at the James Madison Program at Princeton on which the Hamilton Institute models itself.

Looking at the board of the Hamilton Institute, many notable names, though conservatives, are not proponents of the "Christian America" thesis, and in fact are some of the scholars who have most influenced my research. They include Richard Brookhiser, Harvey Mansfield, Michael Zuckert and Thomas Pangle.

You asked me on another thread about what is not biblical about Locke's State of Nature teachings. While I've never read Brookhiser's opinion, I know that Mansfield, Zuckert and Pangle all agree with me (or I should say, I agree with them). And this week, when I discuss this on a blog post, I am going to rely mainly on Pangle's argument.

The Hamilton Institute, from what I've been able to garner, does not seem to push the "Christian Nation," thesis, or at least many of their most distinguished board members do not.

(Neither does Robbie George by the way, who believes public arguments must be justified by appeals to reason, but he takes a very conservative, Thomistic natural law approach to matters of public reason.)

Hercules Mulligan said...

If the AHI does not believe the "Christian nation" thesis, as you call it, Jon, then why do they affiliate themselves with such groups as the Alliance Defense Fund (which started through the late Dr. James Kennedy's ministry), the Federalist Society (which, as far as I understand, holds the Christian-nation viewpoint), the Witherspoon Institute, the Heritage Foundation, and other who hold the "Christian nation" thesis?

And why, when they give a list of the material to study for understanding the roots of western civilization, do they list the Bible, and the writings of the early Church fathers, etc.? And why does it state in their charter:

"Along the way, the AHI will explore as central concerns ...

4. The significance of natural law and natural rights in shaping Western political and legal culture (including the Christian sources above-mentioned); the common law tradition in the United States and the principles on which it is based.

5. The role of religion in American politics; the moral basis of democracy; separation of church and state"?

These are just questions.

I have contacted the Institute along the lines of this question, and they haven't refuted what I said; they simply gave me the words of their charter quoted above.

Jonathan said...

You may be right about the ADF. However, the Federalist Society does not, as far as I know, promote the Christian America thesis. Some members, no doubt, believe it. However, it is not part of the group's platform. Likewise with Witherspoon and Heritage. Both are conservative, and both believe in lowering the "wall of separation"; but officially, from what I know, neither promote as part of their platform the "Christian Nation" idea (though some members might believe it) as the Texas Republicans did (or still do).

There is a difference between on the one hand, believing the ACLU, AU, or Supreme Court for that matter, are wrong in their interpretation of the Establishment Clause, and, on the other, that America was founded by orthodox Christians on orthodox Christian principles (meaning the Bible is the prime source for the ideas contained in the Declaration, and Constitution, and other founding era documents).

I know that for instance, Gregg Frazer believes in a very low Wall of Separation, as do many moderate and conservative thinkers, like Mark Noll or Robert Kraynak who specialize in debunking the Christian America thesis.

As Thomas Fleming (one of the most conservative Christians you'd probably ever read) once wrote about the Christian America idea:

"It is a pretty fiction, and one that I would like to believe. The American founding is a complex story, and there were many Christians among the leaders in the seceding states. However, neither the leaders of the Revolution nor the principal authors of the Constitution were, for the most part, devout and orthodox Christians. Most of them were, like their counterparts in 18th-century England, deists and Unitarians. Washington and Jefferson were nominal Anglicans; Adams, a Unitarian Congregationalist; Franklin, a hedonist and mocker; Tom Paine, an open atheist. They had all been inducted into freemasonry, which, even in its most benign form, is incompatible with orthodox Christianity.

[...]

"If Dred Scott is a slender reed for conservatives to rely on, the Declaration of Independence is a morass. Whatever Mr. Jefferson and his colleagues thought they were doing (other than restating Enlightenment platitudes that have nothing to do with Christianity), they were not writing the fundamental law of a nation that did not yet exist. If they had been intending to establish Christianity at the center of the American system, they would have used Christian language instead of such deistic phrases as 'Nature’s god.' Although some conservatives have made valiant efforts to give the Declaration a harmless reading, Harry Jaffa and other leftists have ensured that the Declaration is read today as a revolutionary manifesto for natural rights that transcend the pettifogging restrictions of the Constitution and the Tenth Amendment, guaranteeing the rights of the states."

He later wrote to me personally:

"What I find very disturbing these days is the delusion of the fundamentalist evangelicals and of the ultra-Catholics, who wish to pretend that this is a Christian country based on Christian law. Such an assumption, if acted on, would erect as monstrous a tyranny as the crackpot Puritans set up in England and in New England, but this time with the resources of the total state. My old friend Mel Bradford, far from being a theocrat himself, made the best argument he could that America was not founded as a leftist-atheist project--and there I think he was right, because no nation can be founded as a project, only a totalitarian state--but beyond that it is simply not safe or prudent to go.

"I am not, obviously a libertarian, but in the good old days when I used to see a lot of Murray Rothbard, we came to the understanding that we would do our little best to slow the growth of the state and would also agree that at least 90% of what the federal government does [is illegitimate] and that we would not quarrel about the last 10% until we had--alas, what a joke--achieved our mission.

"Because we have adamantly stood against the pseudo-Christian hysterics that want to make Tom Delay, Jeb and George Bush the ultimate arbiters of life and death and marriage, we are getting condemned right and left. You might check out chroniclesmagazine.org for my little editorial that has now attracted more than 200 writebacks.

All the best,


Thomas Fleming
Editor, Chronicles Magazine
President, The Rockford Institute"

In any event, Mansfield, Zuckert and Pangle, all conservative academics associated with the Hamilton group have done some of the most effective work debunking the Christian America thesis that I have come across.

Jonathan said...

Looking at their affiliations, the AHI endorses many groups, most of whom probably don't endorse the Christian Nation thesis. For instance, the CATO Institute where my co-blogger Jason Kuznicki (the one who insisted on banning Goswick from Positive Liberty) works. I'm writing, btw, their entry on George Washington in their soon to be released Encyclopedia of Libertarianism.

They also affiliate with First Things for whom I have also written on the Founders and Religion.

Our Founding Truth said...

In any event, Mansfield, Zuckert and Pangle, all conservative academics associated with the Hamilton group have done some of the most effective work debunking the Christian America thesis that I have come across.>.

I agree, Christians, as well secularists have tried to debunk the Christian nation thesis; granted, I haven't read their arguments, but it seems fairly easy to prove the Christian nation thesis; religion belongs to the states, the states formed Christian states, the Constitution is to be exempt in matters of religion. Simple, isn't it?

Why people cannot see it, and continue to reject it, I have no idea, but, I'm close to finishing my next blog, which should shed some more light on the issue.

Harry Jaffa and other leftists have ensured that the Declaration is read today as a revolutionary manifesto for natural rights that transcend the pettifogging restrictions of the Constitution and the Tenth Amendment, guaranteeing the rights of the states.">

The Constitution is the law of the land, in perfect harmony with the DOI. Sounds like a psuedo Federalist to me.

Hercules Mulligan said...

I am familiar with Fleming's work. I think that his ideas on the Founders & Christianity are wrong, and I can answer them with evidence from original sources. I have been and continue to do this on my blogs, but I don't expect to change his mind or yours, because you are apparently adamant in your opinion, and I have no communication with Mr. Fleming.

Hercules Mulligan said...

Hi OFT.

There is a new blogring up. Maybe you would like to join it; I have. You can be a "Friend of Liberty" by leaving a comment at this post and pasting the button that it gives you on your sidebar!

Cato said...

I thought George Washington was the greatest Founding Father. I love Hamilton, but I think that Benjm. Rush and Samuel Adams surpassed him in their influence and integrity. So Hamilton would have come in fourth, in my opinion.

Good post!

Our Founding Truth said...

Cato, thanks for the post. I like Samuel Adams as well, he was the author of the "Rights of the Colonists" in 1772, which Jefferson based the DOI on.

Washington was a stable influence to the other framers, but when the word "Greatest" of the framers, I have to go with Hamilton over all the others.

He was an expert in many fields, economics, military tactics, etc.

His brilliance is matched by no one.

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